Teochew People in Kalbar
Teochew People in Kalbar

Teochew People in Kalbar

Foreword West Kalimantan Province is located in the western part of Borneo Island (Borneo Island is the largest island in Indonesia and the second largest island in the world), referred to as Siga Province for short. The area is about 146,807 square kilometers. It accounts for 7,53% of the Indonesian territory. Most areas are swamps, coastal plains and inland mountains, densely covered with virgin forests. Two main cities: Pontianak, the capital, and Singkawang. There is the longest river in Indonesia: the Kapuyas River, with a total length of 1.143 kilometers. It is now a major agricultural province in Indonesia.

Siga Province in Indonesia is the most concentrated area of ​​Chinese. Almost all Chinese live in all the cities and towns in Siga. The economic activities of the province are also controlled by Chinese, and Chinese are involved in all walks of life. The reason is that the Chinese have a long history in Western Canada. When the Chinese arrived, Western Canada was still a sparsely populated forest and marshland. Siga was developed by the Chinese who took the risk of the epidemic of tropical infectious diseases and even sacrificed their lives in this vast land. Siga is what it is today, and the Chinese are indispensable.

The facts of history often surprise the descendants of Li Shi. The Chaozhou people and Hakkas who were neighbors in their hometowns came to Xijia but became enemies and killed each other because of the uneven distribution of their livelihoods and benefits. The story of Liang Shan Shui Po in "Water Margin" is added to the west. Each occupy the top of the mountain and fight against each other. The Chinese, the native Malays of Western Canada, the indigenous Dayak, the Dutch East India Company, and later the Dutch government used each other and competed for more than 200 years from 1650 to 1885. The war never stopped, and finally ended with the victory of the Dutch government. The Malay kings and the Dayak were big losers, and their own country became a colony of others. Although the Chinese have failed, they have paid great sacrifices. But the Chinese are also winners, because the Chinese have developed a new world in Western Canada, and they have also taken up their heels in Western Canada, becoming the second hometown of the Chinese.

The Chinese in Western Canada are mainly Chaozhou and Hakka people in Guangdong Province, and there are a small number of Hokkien, Cantonese and Hainanese. The contrast between the number of Chaozhou and Hakka is almost equal to each other. After nearly 200 years of competition Struggle and struggle. 150 years of integration. Now the Chinese in Western Canada have merged into one body, sharing a common culture and living customs that everyone agrees with. There are me in you and you in me. Generally speaking, "Pontian people" in other places use two dialects: Chaozhou dialect and Hakka dialect. The Chinese mentioned in the following text refers to the Chaozhou people and the Hakka people collectively.

Key words Chaozhou people, Hakka people, Chinese people, Siga
Summary of content The first part of the thesis is about the Chinese in the Sanfa area where the Chinese have the longest history, and the history of their struggle in gold mining until the Chinese company was eliminated by the Helan government in 1885. The second part talks about the history of Chinese people and gold mining companies in Sijia Pontianak and the surrounding Nambawa, Wanna, and Kajiang basins until 1885 by the Dutch government. The third part is the experience of the Chinese from the period of Dutch rule to World War II and the independence of Indonesia to today. The fourth part is to tell three stories to confirm the previous history. The last is concluding remarks.

Part 1: Chinese in Sanfa and Singkawang
When did the Chinese come to West Kalimantan? There is a Matsu temple on the slope of Elephant Trunk Hill in Bangga area, Sanfa County. There is a gong in the temple, and there is an inscription on it that is the 26th year of Kangxi, which is 1687 AD. There is also a plaque in the temple that reads the 25th year of Kangxi and 1686 AD. 329 years ago, that is to say, 329 years ago, the Chinese built temples on the hillside, which proves that the Chinese had settled in Bangga at that time, and the population had reached a certain number, so it was necessary to build temples. The minimum time for their arrival is more than a few decades or longer than the construction of the temple. In 1650 AD, China was the last year of the Ming Dynasty. After the Qing soldiers entered the Pass, they were consolidating the regime, suppressing and massacring the Han people, changing dynasties, political turmoil, and people's livelihood. People from Fujian and Guangdong provinces were forced to flee to Southeast Asia in large numbers to make a living.

The geographical location of Sanfa is in the southeast of the South China Sea. The water at the mouth of Sanfa River is very deep. It is a natural harbour. It is the only way for ships from China to Java and South Sumatra in Indonesia, and it is also close to the Malay Peninsula. , So some Chinese drifted to Sanfa. And settled here. Sanfa County should be the first place where Chinese settled. In the next 100 years, the Chinese moved back and forth between Sanfa Region and China, relying on monsoon changes, and brought relatives and friends. Sanfahe The Singkawang area became a settlement for the Chinese.

According to the records of the Hakka scholar Luo Xianglin, the Chinese in Western Canada was defeated by the Spanish fleet in the Philippines in the early 15th century by the Teochew pirate Lin Daogan and fled to Wenlai in North Kalimantan. The king of Brunei recruited him as his son-in-law. Since then, he has been converted and settled down. Most of his subordinates also intermarried with locals. The Sultan of Brunei and the Sultan of Sanfa are brothers of descent. The Chaozhou brothers of Lin Daogan may later migrate to Sanfa area, on the hillside. That Mazu temple was built by Chaozhou people, because they are good at seafaring, and they make a living by fishing and doing business, or they can make a living on the sea by half-pirates and half-businessmen. Life at sea is very risky, and Mazu is their guardian god. In China, the Hakka people generally live in the interior and rarely worship Mazu. The establishment of the Matsu Temple also shows that the navigating vessels at that time had frequent travels between China and Sanfa and Pontianak. The equipment of the vessels was poor and the sea was windy, so Mazu's blessing was especially important.

Under the rule of Sultan Muhammad Sjaifuiddin (Sultan Muhammad Sjaifuiddin) who believed in Islam from 1631 to 1686, the power of the Sultan developed rapidly and its national strength was also strong, which could keep pace with the sultans of Java and Wenlai. This period happened to be at the same time as the Mazu Temple in Sanfa, which proved that many Chinese settled in the powerful Sudanese territory. The Chinese mainly consisted of Hakkas from Jiexi, Guangdong and Chaozhou people from Jieyang, Chaoyang and Puning. In addition to doing business, the Chinese are also involved in production, such as farming, breeding, etc., providing human and material support to Sudan. The second Sultan from 1686 to 1708 (SultanRaden Bima /Sulta Muhammad Tajuddin) was more powerful. The Singkawang, Luyi, and Bangkajang areas were annexed. At this time, the Dutch East India Company (1602 to 1798) had begun to invade Indonesia, and Indonesia had entered a historical period of colonization. There was no unified government in Indonesia at that time, and local kings were in their own hands. Samfa Sudan has turned to the Dutch-India East India Company for its own interests, and can do business with them and use the power of the Dutch to ensure its own safety. The history of the Chinese in West Canada overlaps with the Dutch and Indian regimes. The Dutch and Indian regimes, the three-fed Sudan, and the Chinese have a triangular relationship. Their competition, battle, and fusion are part of the Chinese history in Western Canada.

The Sanfa area is rich in gold. As early as the 14th and 15th centuries, the Javanese had immigrated to Western Canada to engage in gold mining activities, but the production was limited due to low production technology. By the beginning of the 18th century, the Chinese were also engaged in gold mining activities, and the output increased a lot. In 1745 AD, the Sudan summoned a large number of Chinese to mine gold mines, and contracted the gold mines to the Chinese on lease. The Sudan was too harsh on the Chinese and required the Chinese to pay heavy taxes. Chinese people are not allowed to grow their own rice, vegetables and do business in the mining area. They also sell food, iron and salt and other necessities at high prices, and the Chinese are not allowed to possess weapons and explosives. The Chinese rebelled in 1770, and Sudan lowered taxes. Since then, a large number of Chinese have poured into Western Canada from China. From 1770 to 1860, due to the boom in gold mining, a Chinese society emerged in the northwestern region of West Canada, which included various industries, domestic and foreign trade, shops, manufacturing, livestock breeding, fishery, mining, transportation and other industries. . Participants in various industries are all Chinese or have Chinese ancestry. The result of the three rounds of gold mining by the Chinese in Western Canada was to turn a barren, uninhabited tropical rainforest and swamp into an agricultural and commercial center with agricultural resources and a transportation system.

There were 14 gold mining companies in the Sanfa area in the 1860s, among which the headquarters of the "Santiaogou" company was located in Bangga. These companies jointly formed the "Heshun Fourteen Company" in 1776. The relationship between the company and the company, between the company and the Sudan, between the company and the Dayak, and between the company and the Dutch and Indian government is intricate, forming the history of West Canada. In that European colonial era, the Dutch had a strong national support and occupied the sky. The local Sudanese and Dayak people occupy a peaceful place and a favorable place. The Sudan sold the country for profit and was used by the Netherlands. The Chinese have nothing, or the overseas refugees of the Qing empire, relying on hungry and courage, and their own wisdom and perseverance to survive in the Sanfa area. The conflict between the Chinese company and the Dutch began in 1820. In 1824, Liu Taier, the leader of the Lanfang company in East Wanlu accepted bribes from the Dutch and Indian government, and became a puppet of the Dutch and Indian government, dividing the power of Chinese companies. However, the Dagang Company, Santiaogou Company, and Heshun Company in the Sanfa area did not accept the Dutch and Indian government, and were blocked by the Dutch and Indian government for many years. They would rather not mine gold, and thus switch to agriculture for self-saving, achieve food self-sufficiency under difficult conditions, and develop fertile land and agricultural areas in the Sanfa area. The Dutch and Indian government had no choice but to use tough measures to send troops to suppress. The Chinese resolutely resisted. However, due to the disparity in power, the war lasted from 1880 to 1885 for five years, and finally ended in the victory of the Dutch and Indian government. The anti-Dutch struggle of the Western Canadian Chinese Company greatly delayed the time when West Kalimantan became a Dutch colony, and wrote a glorious page in the modern history of Indonesia's anti-aggression.

The Chinese in Sanfa and Singkawang had to mine gold mines, open up wasteland to grow food, deal with the disturbance of the local Daya people, and deal with Sanfa in this closed area for more than 100 years from the middle of the 18th century to the end of the 19th century. The oppression of the land king and the blow of the Dutch army. We must also deal with the looting and seizure of Lanfang, a Chinese company from South Bawa. Forcing Chinese people to unite together to cope with the crisis together and defend their homeland firmly. After a long period of integration, the multi-ethnic Chinese have been integrated into one group. Because the place is blocked and closed, the language pronunciation is free and casual, and the pronunciation and accent have changed. The Malay language has also been mixed in and used. Hakka dialect becomes Hakka soft dialect. Hakka dialect of this tone is not available in the world. It is only used in Sanfa and Singkawang areas. It is still used uniformly. There is no second dialect among the Chinese, and Chaozhou people also speak this dialect locally. Malays and Dayaks can also listen and speak. The unified language for the people in this area is the identity of the ethnic group: the Singkawang people.

Part 2: Chinese in South Bawa, Pontianak, East Wanlu and Wanna regions
At the same time that Sanfa Tuwang was mining gold mines, a large number of Chaozhou people and the Meixian Hakkas traveled across the sea to Xijia. They were not in the Sanfa and Singkawang areas. Instead, they came to the Pontianak area at the mouth of the Kapuyas River. Pontianak is the central city of the Malay Kingdom. There are piers and ships that can berth directly, and most of the Chinese who go to Western Canada go ashore here. They come from Chaozhouhe, Jieyang, Chaoyang, Meixian, Jiexi (Hepo) and other regions, as well as from Fujian and other places in Guangdong, but Hakka and Chaozhou people are the most common. They dispersed from Pontianak to the surrounding areas, some of them went inland along the Kabuyas River to find work, and later settled on the two banks of this big river and at the intersections with tributaries, which were more than 1,000 kilometers long. He is from the Hakka Chaozhou people. From the middle of the eighteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century (Indonesia's independence), the number of Chinese has been increasing, but it is unstable.

The history of the Western Canadian Chinese in Pontianak also began with gold mining. Hakkas and Chaozhou people started from renting land from the Tuwang Mining Company to the subsequent looting and massacre. In the end, the Chaozhou people were driven out of the mining area and the East Wanlu and Wanna areas. The successful company was the Lanfang Company established by Luo Fangbai, which used organized armed forces to seize the gold mining area. It was disbanded by the Dutch government from 1777 to 1885. Survived for 108 years, the time overlapped with the Dutch colonial rule of Siga. In addition, the local Malay dynasty and the aboriginal Dayak already existed, and the cooperation, struggle and war between the four became the West. Add the main axis of Pontianak history. The Chaozhou people were defeated in this dispute. Because they could not make a living where Hakkas existed, they had to find another way out in the safe area in and around Pontianak and the Daofang area in the south of Western Canada. By the 1960s, Western Canada was divided into three Chinese-language areas. One was the Hepo soft-speaking area in Sanfa and Singkawang, Dongwanlu north of Pontianak to Wanna, and Shanghou to Meizhou in the upper reaches of the Kajiang River. Hakka area. And Pontianak and the Chaozhou dialect area to the south. It is the result of the struggle between the Chinese. After 1885, under the laws of the Dutch colonial government, the Chinese in Western Canada began to integrate. The grievances and grievances were gradually eliminated before. In the 1950s, the founding of the People's Republic of China accelerated the integration efforts and began to use a common language: Mandarin.

Siga has long been known for producing gold mines and diamonds. Siga has a history of communication and migration with Java Island. Arabs, Javanese and Bukit people have come here, first living in coastal areas, and then gradually. The mainland and horses, the kings of the land or the sultans have taxes to collect, and they are willing to let the Chinese live freely. Some even transferred the land to the Chinese at a high price, and they were irresponsible when there was a dispute between the land and the Dayak. Many Chinese people were killed because of the dispute in the mining of West Canada. Local planting and mining of gold mines are both profitable businesses. Although there are risks, there is still an endless stream of Chinese operating in various parts of Western Canada, with tens of thousands of people. The main settlements are: Nam Bawa, Pontianak, East Wanlu, Wanna, Compound, Sigaruo, Xindang, Yu and its surrounding areas, and build Chinese towns in various places.

The Chinese who operate mining in various parts of Western Canada lack legal control and protection of property. In order to manage and cope with all kinds of incidents, as a last resort, he formed his own "company" in the Chinese way, managed autonomy, and became an organizational unit capable of economic development. Signing a contract with the Turkish king in the name of the company and paying taxes to the Turkish king or Sudan can also help the Turkish king and Sudan resolve disputes. They recognized that the "company" is an autonomous unit. Its larger company becomes an autonomous government with land, people, and sovereignty. Such companies not only safeguard the interests of all parties, but also plan management methods such as transactions and taxation, justice and security, worship and education. However, in terms of operation and management, the company must protect the relationship between its people and the local Tu people, and the competitiveness of its operations, such as building roads, communicating rivers and other infrastructure. Disputes between companies are handled thoroughly by the sultans of the Turkish kings. If conflicts of interest are conflicts, some even use force to resolve them. If the version of Chinese villages fighting land and water sources is applied to Xijia, there will be fights between companies and even killing each other.

By the 1870s, there were dozens of Chinese companies in West Canada, large and small, distributed in Pontianak, East Wanlu, Luyi and Wanna areas, such as Pontianak’s Jusheng Company and Sijiawei. In Luyi, Dagang Company is the most powerful. Luo Fangbai had just arrived in Pontianak from his hometown. At that time, a war broke out between the Dagang company in Sanfa Luyi and the Chinese company in Nanbawa waxing. A large number of refugees fled to Pontianak. Luo Fangbai saw a business opportunity in Pontianak, knowing that Sijia is a place of chaos, and that the king of the earth and the Dutch have no power to manage this place. As long as they have the force to occupy the territory, they can make a difference. Luo Fangbai himself has culture, strategy and leadership. In Pontianak he organized a Hakka army of Meixian people to the East Wanlu area to occupy other people’s mining areas by plundering and slaughter local mining companies in Jieyang, Chaoyang, and Chaozhou people. Hakka people in Feimei County. Become a company with the broadest jurisdiction and the nature of a Chinese gang organization. There are security guards, the army, and the establishment of cards to collect taxes. Local district leaders call themselves kings and dominate one side. In 1777, Luo Fangbai formally led the Lanfang Company. The company's strength continued to increase, and its territory expanded to Wanna and Shanghou. West wanted to attack the Chinese company in Luyi, Sanfa. The Dagang company in Luyi was heavily guarded, and Lanfang had to return to Dongwanlu. In the next hundred years, the Lanfang Company and the Chinese company of Sanfa continued to dispute. According to the Indonesian work "Annex of Indonesian Culture and History" written by Indonesian Sumono: In 1789 AD, the Dutch East India Company ordered that the Malay dynasty of Pontianak joined forces with the Lanfang Company to attack the South Barwa Malay soil. The king and the Malay native king of Shanghou won both wars. The Lanfang Company and the Dutch East India Company had long established cooperative relations. Help the colonists to expand the colony and seek benefits from it. Lanfang Company has also launched wars against the Daya people many times, and the two have won each other. The 50 years after the establishment of Lanfang Company was full of bloody wars and massacres.

In addition to the mining workers, the Lanfang Company also has a planting team, a transportation team, and a trading team to meet the needs of the company. In addition, there are special farming companies that focus on planting instead of gold mining. Such companies usually supply rice and pigs to miners, and open up wasteland to grow rice.

What is the operating status of Lanfang Company? Everyone thinks that there are gold mines to dig, and Lanfang Company must be rich and powerful! In fact, it is not. In that era without technology, gold panning was a hard work. There was gold everywhere in the West. It was true, but the content was not high. A meal contains less than 0.5 grams of gold. Today’s technology is high, but many gold mining companies still can’t do it. Non-governmental gold laundering is based on collecting small amounts and making more money. Rewarding. This is why the Malay Sultan would use Chinese laborers to mine gold mines. The leader of Lanfang Company may be rich, and the workers' lives can be imagined. Why are the Western Canadian Chinese spread so widely? This is the reason why we open up wasteland and build farms everywhere! The East Wanlu area of ​​Lanfang Company and its surroundings are also the most developed areas of Chinese agriculture.

The development of Lanfang Company in 1824 was wooed by the Dutch government and joined the Dutch-Indian government and became an official of the Dutch-Indian government in exchange for the company’s right to survive. By 1885, the Dutch government had withdrawn and defeated Sanfa’s Chinese company. Ability to control the overall situation, disband Lanfang Company, the political status of the Chinese is over.

Part 3: Overview of the Chinese in Western Canada under the Dutch colonial rule and after Indonesia's independence
In Yuan Bingling’s "Borneo Chinese Company System." there is the following passage: "The government established by the Dutch East India Company in Batavia, Java, and the land kings such as Pontianak and South Bawa have successively concluded The treaty recognized that the Netherlands had the right to rule over the land, and the Chinese companies were controlled. In 1798, the Dutch-Indian East India Company closed down, and the Dutch government took over in 1799. The Chinese in Western Canada were even more suppressed by the Dutch. Mining companies around the country insisted on responding. He did not hesitate to resist with force. The fierce battle against Dagang Company was launched in 1855. The war started from 1820 to 1885. After 65 years of war, it ended with the victory of the Dutch. In Dutch's "Complete Works of the Battle of the Netherlands and India", about the Chinese The company’s war of resistance has about 100 pages of records. After the war, Dutch governor Rohsen defended himself: The dignity of the country, the rights of the Sudanese and Dayak people have been respected. The Chinese company has also been destroyed once and for all."

Under the rule of the Dutch and Indian government, the Western Canadian Chinese also entered the security period, because there is a strong government, although it is not equal, but there is a legal system. It is more suitable for the Chinese to survive and make a living. The farms and fields that were fortunately cultivated in the past can be fully utilized, and the development of all walks of life has brought prosperity to cities and towns. At that time, China was stepping into a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society. The people did not have a livelihood, a large number of hipsters, and Hakkas continued to come south to West Canada. After the establishment of the Republic of China, the political turmoil and warlords continued to fight. In addition, the transportation is convenient, the ships are bigger, and the greater wave of immigrants comes to Indonesia, and the Chinese travel freely between Indonesia and China. At the climax, the Chinese population accounted for more than one-third of the total population. As of today, when you look at the small and medium-sized cities and towns of Western Canada, almost all you see are Chinese shops. When you look at the suburbs, there are all walks of life. Chinese figure. This is the result of the struggle of the Chinese in Western Canada for 300 years. Western Canada has achieved today's achievements, and the Chinese have taken a lot of credit.

In 1942, World War II broke out in the Pacific War. Japanese troops marched south and 9 planes bombed Pontianak, killing many civilians and leaving the city in ruins. It brought another nightmare to the Chinese. The fascist rule of the Japanese army brought people into fear. Although it took only three years, it also killed many Chinese, with intellectuals and Chinese leaders bearing the brunt. The Chinese who were killed by the Japanese army were buried in the mass graves of war victims in Dong Wanlu, and a memorial was set up for future generations to mourn.

Indonesia became independent in 1945, and the Chinese also believed that good days would come, but history is a stormy progress, and there is seldom peace along the way. Storms will catch up at any time and life is always ups and downs. The government's Decree No. 10 in 1957 prohibited Chinese from doing business in cities and towns below the county level. It also displaced most of the Chinese. Career and life start all over again. At that time, the Chinese government sent ships to pick up the Chinese returning home, but due to the large number of people and the limited space on the ships, a small number of people returned, and most of the Chinese remained. At that time, the Chinese government sent the Guanghua Ferry to Pontianak and Bangga Pier to pick up the overseas Chinese to return home, which is a testimony to this historical event.

In 1965, there was a military coup in Indonesia and General Suharto came to power. This political change was mainly to eliminate the Indonesian Communist Party. On the border of Malaysia to the north of West Canada, there were communist guerrilla activities in North Kalimantan. The central government sent a large number of military police to encircle and suppress the Communist Party of Indonesia. . The arrests of students from Chinese schools and Chinese suspected of being the Communist Party in the city resulted in many unjust cases of imprisonment. Chinese villages near the inland war zone were forced to evacuate, and all villagers were rushed to towns to sever their support for the Communist Party. The Chinese became refugees, dragged their families and left their homes in the cities. The Chinese community organized relief, and the casualties were high. Some abandoned their children and allowed them to be adopted by well-meaning Chinese. In the end, some of them integrated into the Chinese community, and some wandered to the outer islands and Jakarta. History is just a joke. This vast area that has been forcibly moved is the place under the jurisdiction of Lanfang Company 200 years ago. The people living in it are the descendants of Lanfang Company personnel. There are also a small number of Hakkas in Meizhou and its vicinity. The Bengka shadow men of Singkawang were affected.

Part 4: Talking about family history and witnessing the history of Pontianak Chinese
Tell three stories and witness history. My friend Lin Jianzhou, 70 years old this year, is a well-known family in Pontianak. His family has lived in Pontianak for a long time. Not only is the family wealthy, but also the family has a large population. His family's Lin Lanxiang Co., Ltd. is very famous in Pontianak. After several generations, he has been doing business and other businesses in Pontianak. Looking at his company's name "Lanxiang", you will know that he and "Lanfang" may have a connection. According to Lin Jun, his ancestor was indeed related to Lanfang Company, but he was also vague in that generation. The old generation was gone, but there was a story in the family that everyone in the family knew. When their family ancestors came to Pontianak, it was the time when the Lanfang Company was strong. At that time, Chaozhou people did not dare to go to the outskirts of Pontianak, because that was the world of the Hakka people. The ancestor of his family was a martial artist, handsome, and aggressive. One day, he fought with the Hakkas at the new port of Pontianak and was captured by the Hakkas and sent to the Hakkas-controlled area of ​​Songbaigang, where he was detained. It was also a coincidence of marriage, and he was spotted by the "princess" in this district surnamed Zhong. At that time, the head of the Lanfang Company and the local ruling generals were called kings. The general surnamed Zhong of Songbaigang was very popular in the company, so he was called king and his daughter naturally became a princess. After some setbacks, they became a couple. Since then, they have been doing business smoothly in Pontianak, and they have a strong father-in-law and a good family member who can do business with the Hakkas in the suburbs, and money is coming in. It is said that there was a short episode when they got married, and the two parties also had an oath, that is, a curse: a Chaozhou man married a Hakka daughter as his daughter-in-law, and his descendants would be prosperous in the future. For example, if a Chaozhou woman marries a Hakka as a daughter-in-law, her family will fall apart.

This is the history of the marriage of Hakka and Chaozhou people in the struggle, which bears witness to the truth of the history of Lanfang Company. Their family has prospered since then. By the time Lin Jun was born in 1944, they were the largest family in Pontianak. Most of the men in the family were the leaders of the Chinese society at that time. Lin Jun’s father was a foreign student who received a degree and the principal of Pontianak Chinese School. . When the Japanese army occupied Pontianak, they were killed by the Japanese army, and Lin Jun's two brothers and one sister were also killed by Japanese planes.

Another friend Zhang Jun. 65 years old this year, he is a Hakka from Meixian and has now moved to Jakarta to engage in business activities. He lived in Ngabang when he was a child. When he was a child, he saw his grandfathers often talk and demonstrate martial arts after eating and drinking. He didn’t know that he had lived in Wanna for several generations, but he knew that his ancestor was a member of the Heaven and Earth Society. He was arrested by the Qing Dynasty and was ordered by the Qing Dynasty. He fled to Xijia with pigtails and helped Luo Fangbo in East Wanlu. He later settled in Vanner, and his family history was not recorded in his family. If what he said is true, Lanfang Company will be related to the Chinese gangs, and it is not surprising that the gang system is used to establish the self-government system of Chinese villages in Western Canada. The Luyi Chinese Company is related to Tiandihui, and it is recorded in history books.

My grandfather's surname was Chen. He was born at the end of the 19th century and died in the 1980s. His grandfather came to Xijia from Hepo, Guangdong in the early 19th century. At that time, it was the era of the Dutch and Indian government. He began to open up wasteland about three kilometers from the new port of Pontianak. He lived by the river 4 kilometers in a small tributary of the Kajiang River. He lived in Yata huts (thatched huts), felled forests and burned mountains. Grow yellow pears for a living. This river is also called Huangligou, and pepper will be planted later, so it is also called Pepper Port. The life of growing pineapples is very difficult, and no one buys them because of the large output. I had to plant a rubber tree in the middle of the yellow pear tree, and just barely survived the hard work. My grandfather’s father died early. In order to live, my mother remarried and the brothers had different surnames. At that time, the people living in this ditch were all Chaozhou people and the original landlord Malays, only their family of Hakka. Life is harmonious. To repair the house, a lot of wood is needed. Everyone gathers more than ten and twenty people, joins them in the forest to chop the wood, and then carries them to the riverside and transports them back. The old house will be demolished and built tomorrow. The Chaozhou people will take it down His family is called "Lao Chen". By the 1950s, I was already in elementary school, and I must stay at my grandpa’s house for two weeks during the holidays. This was the happiest time. The area near the big forest is a good place to play. The rubber forest is about two hectares. The tree is too big for two people to hold. Four or five of the uncle and aunt will go to cut the gum at five in the morning. They will not be cut back until seven in the morning. I went back to collect the glue, and after 10 o'clock, I finished collecting it, and processed it in a fixed place to make fireworks and hung on the bamboo poles. After finishing the work, it was just right to have lunch. lunch break. From 2pm to 6pm, everyone works in the vegetable garden behind the house, planting and harvesting vegetables, watering fertilizer, watering, etc. The women raise pigs, chickens and do housework, and a family of more than 20 people live in one room. In the big house. Although he is not rich, he leads a very stable life. This family has been six or seven generations from the ancestors, and now there are at least 500 people scattered in various places, but the three hectares of land reclaimed are still there, and the rubber trees are too old and have been cut down. Today it is a suburb of Pontianak. The land is very valuable. Some of my uncles and cousins ​​still live there. Vegetables are still being grown and pigs are being raised. Over the past 160 years, six or seven generations have been passed down. The family has witnessed the history of Pontianak from 150 to 175 years. It is also a portrayal of the struggle and bitter history of the Chinese in Western Canada.

Concluding remarks Today the Chinese live in the democratic era in Indonesia. The Chinese are already a member of the Indonesian ethnic family, and everything is developing in a better direction. Looking back on the history of our ancestors, social turmoil is nothing more than "poverty" and "injustice." The other is "forcing others what you want." The same is true in society now, and wars and turmoil have come from this. The society in which the Chinese live today: Indonesia’s mainstream Muslim culture is blended with Western and Chinese culture. In the integration and competition, "survival of the fittest" is the law of survival. I hope that the Chinese can grasp the direction and move forward steadily in this historical trend without losing the dignity of the Chinese.

The "History of Overseas Chinese in Indonesia" co-authored by Li Xuemin and Huang Kunzhang has hundreds of thousands of words and is 440 pages thick. It has a detailed record of the history of Chinese in Indonesia. Only there are only 5 pages of information on the Chinese in Western Canada. It can be seen that there are still controversies and uncertainties in the history of the Chinese in Western Canada. The reason is that there are few or no written records. This has to be determined by the excavation of future data and the historical records of artifacts left over.

Reference materials:
  1. "History of Overseas Chinese in Indonesia" (from ancient times to 1949), written by Huang Kunzhang and Li Xuemin.
  2. "West Borneo Luo Fangbai and other republic built" Luo Xianglin.
  3. "Borneo Chinese Company System" compiled by Yuan Bingling.
  4. Online information.

Rukan Sentra Latumenten Blok C No.12-12A-12B
JL. Prof. Dr. Latumenten, No. 50 Jelambar Baru
Kec. Grogol petamburan, Kota Jakarta Barat
DKI Jakarta 11460 - Indonesia